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Tuesday, 11 February 2014, 11:00 am - White Island/Whakaari activity update.

GNS scientists have recently visited White Island/Whakaari to make observations and continue to improve our volcano monitoring capabilities. The crater lake temperature is approximately 57 °C and its level continues to rise slowly. A new GPS system was installed to measure ground movements. The volcano remains in a generally elevated state of unrest.

During their visits to the island in early February, GNS Science staff measured the lake temperature (57°C) and that of fumarole F0 (147°C), on the southern part of ­the crater floor. These are similar to the last measurements in January. The lake level is still rising slowly, and has now drowned one of the fumaroles on the southern lake shore, causing occasional geysering in that area. No other substantial changes in activity in the lake area were observed compared with previous weeks.

A new permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) station­ was installed on the crater floor to strengthen the local volcano deformation monitoring. Volcanologist Brad Scott said: “Ground deformation at active volcanoes can be an indicator of pressure build-up at depth and general volcanic unrest. As one of multiple monitoring tools, GNS Science uses surveying techniques and GPS technology to monitor ground swelling and subsidence, to an accuracy of a few millimetres, at many of New Zealand’s volcanoes."

Over the past few weeks, the average daily sulphur dioxide gas flux has remained below 500 tonnes per day; this is lower than over the last few months and may be partly a result of the increasing lake level. GNS scientists also collected samples of rocks deposited during the October 2013 eruption; understanding how those eruptions occurred will help us to assess the future risk from the volcano.

White Island remains in a state of volcanic unrest. A range of eruptive activity can occur under these conditions and eruptions can start with little or no prior warning. Larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1.

GNS Science is continuing to closely monitor the activity at White Island (and other New Zealand volcanoes) through the GeoNet project.

Want to learn more about volcano monitoring? See http://www.gns.cri.nz/Home/Learning/Science-Topics/Volcanoes/Monitoring-Our-Volcanoes

Nico Fournier
Duty Volcanologist 

Contact: Brad Scott

A new survey of the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) soil gas flux and ground temperatures at Red Crater has shown little change since 2009. 

A new survey of the amount of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) coming out of the ground near Red Crater on Mt Tongariro has shown little change since an earlier survey in 2009. The temperature just below the ground surface is also little different from values measured in 2009. Together these new results show that the 2012 eruptions from the nearby Upper Te Maari Crater have had little lasting effect on the Red Crater area.

Our GeoNet gas chemists have several methods available for measuring the gas produced from our volcanoes. One of these is a soil gas flux meter. A round metal accumulation chamber is placed on the ground and the gas emitted from the soil is measured by an analyser carried in the chemist’s back-pack. Soil gas flux measurements can be used to track changes in gases coming from magma and the geothermal systems beneath volcanoes. Last week we repeated a carbon dioxide (CO2) soil gas and ground temperature survey at Red Crater, Tongariro.

The survey covered the same area that we covered in 2009. At each sampling site we measure the gas flux and then map this. From the measurements we can also calculate the total gas flux from the area. In 2009 we calculated a flux of 47 tons per day from the survey area. The result from the new survey in February 2014 is a flux of 39 tons per day. The difference is not considered significant.

 

We also measured the ground temperature at 10 cm depth everywhere we measured soil gas fluxes. There is again no significant difference in the ground temperatures between 2009 and 2014. Over the later part of the winter and this summer there have been some reports of trampers on the Tongariro Alpine Crossing getting a warm bottom when sitting at Red Crater to admire the view. Our new data show this area is not getting hotter.

 

Red Crater is one of several volcanic vents on Mt Tongariro. Eruptions are reported in 1855, 1886, 1897, 1926 and 1934. 

Wednesday, 22 January 2014, 9.00 am - White Island activity update; Volcanic Alert level remains at Level 1 (no change).

No further eruptive activity has occurred at White Island (Whakaari) since the moderate eruption on the evening of 11 October 2013. Volcano seismic activity remains at a low levels, while the gas flux has been at elevated levels. The Crater Lake continues to grow.

GNS Science staff have made several visits to the island in the last week to assess the status of the volcano, repair existing monitoring installations and evaluate new portable equipment. The volcano remains in an elevated state of unrest.

The water level of the Crater Lake continues to rise. Observations and photographs suggest it is about 5 m higher than late last year. Average daily sulphur dioxide gas flux has ranged from 133 to 924 tonnes per day. This remains elevated compared to levels before 2012 when daily averages were generally less than 300 tonnes per day.

Experiments with a recently-acquired thermal infra-red camera have enabled us to establish the lake surface temperature and the temperatures of several of the gas vents near the lava dome that was extruded in late 2012. This camera allows us to take images of the temperature of areas either from a helicopter or from the crater rim. The lake temperature ranged from 37 to 58 °C and averaged 51 to 52 °C. The temperature of the gas vents on the lava dome range from around 200 to 330 °C, and at one vent we have measured over 400 °C. These observations confirm hot volcanic gases are still passing through these vents.

Volcanologist Brad Scott said, “This new camera gives us some fantastic data on the heat coming from the volcano and allows us to build a better picture of the status of the activity.”

We have also tested a diode laser instrument to evaluate carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gas emissions and a Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometer which can measure a very wide range of different gases. We are developing our capabilities in monitoring different gases so that we can better understand how the volcano behaves.

White Island remains in a state of volcanic unrest. A range of eruptive activity can occur under these conditions and eruptions can start with little or no prior warning. Larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1. Aviation Colour Code remains Green.

GNS Science is continuing to closely monitor the activity at White Island (and other New Zealand volcanoes) through the GeoNet project.

Brad Scott
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

 

23 December 2013, 3:30pm - Tongariro activity update; Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1 (no change); Aviation Colour Code remains Green (no change)

Tongariro volcano remains quiet. Te Maari has had no eruptive activity since an explosion on 21 November 2012 although there is still a small chance that an eruption could occur with little or no warning.

A few small earthquakes continue to be recorded on the northern flanks of Tongariro, occurring at a low rate of 2-3 per month. We are measuring sulphur dioxide fluxes of about 10-15 tonnes/day which is also a low level. The latest gas measurements were made last Friday.

On Friday GNS volcanologists also sampled the fumaroles on Te Maari that have been active since the eruptions in 2012. The main fumarole, which often provides strong steam plumes visible from Taupo, was emitting gases at over 400 °C.

GNS Science has not changed the Volcanic Alert Level or the Aviation Colour Code.

Through the GeoNet project, GNS Science continues to monitor Tongariro for any new earthquake activity or changes in volcanic gas concentrations, and keeps a close watch for any visible changes.

Background

Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community. Code Green indicates that a volcano has no eruptive activity.

The Volcanic Alert Level ranges from 0 to 5 and defines the current status at a volcano. Level 1 indicates volcanic unrest, with departures from background level.

Michael Rosenberg
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

Monday, 23 December 2013, 3:30 pm - White Island activity update; Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1 and the Aviation Colour Code remains Green.

No further eruptive activity has occurred at White Island (Whakāri) since the moderate eruption on the evening of 11 October 2013. Seismic activity has remained at a low level since that eruption. Gas flux has been variable and the crater lake has re-established itself.

Average daily sulphur dioxide gas flux has ranged from 300 to over 1000 tonnes per day. This is elevated compared to levels before 2012 when daily averages were generally less than 300 tonnes per day.

There are now three webcams on White Island which enable us to keep a close eye on the crater lake and other areas of activity. The lake is now re-established and has drowned the vents that were active earlier this year.

Despite the seismic activity being at a low level, White Island remains in a state of volcanic unrest. A range of eruptive activity can occur under these conditions and eruptions can start with little or no prior warning. Larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1.

GNS Science is continuing to closely monitor the activity at White Island (and other New Zealand volcanoes) through the GeoNet project.

Mike Rosenberg
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

Keen volcano watchers may have noticed we have added a new web camera at White Island this week. The new camera has been installed on the western rim of the main crater, looking down on the Crater Lake and active vents.

From this site we get a near birds-eye view of where all the action is going on. Unfortunately this is also where all the steam and gas comes from, so often the view may be obscured too. As the new camera is in fact ‘two’ cameras, a standard daylight camera and a specialised ‘low light night’ camera, we will have images at night as well.

This camera install has come with a series of challenges for the GeoNet technical team: the site is very exposed and has taken two attempts to complete the install. In parallel with the physical install has been the challenge of reconfiguring the data network on the island and links back to the mainland. We have now established three data links off the island and have been able to connect all our equipment through WiFi links. These include the two seismographs with acoustic sensors, a GPS, tiltmeter and gravity meter, the two existing cameras, the two miniDOAS spectrometers and the experimental data logger at ‘Fumarole 0’.

An important part of volcano monitoring is visual observations, and a great way to achieve this is by the use of remote cameras. Advances in camera technology and, more importantly in the case of White Island, the upgrade of the data links from the island, are allowing us to bring back more data. As with all of our remote camera installs the local conditions are going to dictate how many useful images we get from the site. The steam and gas plume from the active vents does tend to frequently rise up the western crater wall which will obscure the view from time to time.

Monday, 4 November 2013, 11:30 am - White Island activity update; Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1 and the Aviation Colour Code is lowered to Green.

No further eruptive activity has occurred at White Island (Whakāri) since the moderate eruption on the evening of 11 October 2013. Seismic activity and gas flux from the volcano have been at a low level since the eruption. The Aviation Colour Code has been lowered from Yellow to Green.

The potential impact of volcanic activity on aircraft has decreased and GNS scientists have lowered the Aviation Colour Code from Yellow to Green. The Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community.

Despite the seismic activity and gas flux from the volcano being at a low level, White Island remains in a state of volcanic unrest with instability in the volcano-hydrothermal system. A range of eruptive activity can occur under these conditions. Eruptive activity can be expected with no prior warning. The larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1.

GNS Science is continuing to closely monitor the activity at White Island (and other New Zealand volcanoes) through the GeoNet project.

Nico Fournier
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Nico Fournier

Monday, 21 October 2013, 2:30 pm - White Island activity update; Volcanic Alert Level lowered to Level 1 and the Aviation Colour Code remains at Yellow.

No further eruptive activity has occurred at White Island (Whakaari) since the moderate eruption on the evening of 11 October. Volcano seismic activity has declined but remains variable. Gas flux remains high. Volcanic unrest continues at White Island. The Volcanic Alert Level has been lowered from Level 2 to Level 1. Aviation Colour Code remains at Yellow.

Since the moderate eruption on the evening of 11 October no further eruptions have been detected at White Island. A visit to examine and sample the effects of the eruption and repair damaged equipment has confirmed the entire Main Crater floor was affected. Ejecta extended to over 350 m from the active vent and a wet volcanic surge cloud enveloped the Main Crater, depositing a muddy layer.

Volcanic tremor levels decreased after the eruption on 11 October and have remained at variable levels since then. A successful gas flight was made on 17 October. The SO2 flux was 450 tonnes per day, CO2 1140 tonnes per day and H2S 12 tonnes per day. The SO2 and H2S flux is little changed, CO2 has decreased from the previous measurements on 23 August. The gas data suggests that there is continuing degasing of a shallow body of magma (molten material). The daily SO2 measurements from data logging equipment on the island show the SO2 flux has ranged from 408 to 1400 tonnes per day over the last week and the average flux remains elevated.

White Island remains in a state of volcanic unrest with instability in the volcano-hydrothermal system. A range of eruptive activity can occur under these conditions with little or no prior warning. The larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area.

GNS Science is continuing to closely monitor the activity at White Island (and other New Zealand volcanoes) through the GeoNet project, and will provide more information as it becomes available.

Brad Scott
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

Monday, 14 October 2013, 1:45pm - White Island activity update;  Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 2 and the Aviation Colour Code is lowered from Orange to Yellow.

Volcanic unrest continues at White Island. Following the moderate eruption that occurred on the evening of Friday 11 October the tremor level has declined, although the potential for further eruptions with little or no warning remains. The Aviation Colour Code has been lowered from Orange to Yellow but the Volcanic Alert Level remains at 2.

Volcanic tremor levels gradually decreased after the eruption on Friday and are now at levels equivalent to the middle of last week. Measurements of sulphur dioxide gas emissions from the last week show an increase in gas levels towards the end of the week with a maximum of over 1,000 tonnes/day of sulphur dioxide measured on 11 October. This is one of the highest values that we have measured since June last year.

Video compilation from the web camera on the Crater Floor shows the activity on Friday evening with a rapidly expanding ash cloud moving towards the camera. The video clip can be seen at: http://youtu.be/7YuOFddVGwc. Note times in video clips are in UTC (Co-ordinated Universal Time, 13 hours behind local time).

The accompanying photos from the crater rim camera show the effects of the eruption with one image from the day before the eruption and one image from the morning afterwards. Note how the dark grey mud coats the crater floor and crater walls. The eruption was larger than previous events over the last year, in terms of the area impacted by mud, and would have been life threatening if there had been people on the island.

A range of eruptive activity has occurred over the last 15 months, with more frequent events in the last couple of weeks. Eruptive activity can be expected with no prior warning. The larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area to which visitors have access.

GNS Science is continuing to closely monitor the activity at White Island (and other New Zealand volcanoes) through the GeoNet project, and will provide more information as it becomes available.

Gill Jolly
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

Saturday, 12 October 2013, 12:00pm - White Island activity update;  Volcanic Alert Level is raised to Level 2 and the Aviation Colour Code is raised from Yellow to Orange.

A moderate explosive eruption occurred at White Island (Whakāri) at approximately 8:09pm NZDT last night. The eruption lasted about 1 minute based on data from acoustic and seismic sensors, and was confirmed by subsequent analysis of web camera images during daylight hours. As a consequence of this activity the Volcanic Alert Level is now raised to Level 2 and the Aviation Colour Code to Orange.

Observations from the web cameras show an explosive eruption producing an ash cloud column that expanded across the Main Crater floor. New mud deposited on the crater floor is evident in the web camera images from the crater rim this morning. The present activity is a continuation of the unrest observed at White Island for the past 15 months and hazardous eruptions of this type may occur with no warning. This eruption is larger than recent events and would have been life threatening to people on the island.

We will provide more information as it becomes available.

Arthur Jolly
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

Tuesday, 8 October 2013, 5:30pm - White Island activity update;  Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1 and the Aviation Colour Code is raised from Green to Yellow.

Volcanic unrest continues at White Island (Whakāri). Following the small energetic steam venting event that occurred on 4 October the tremor level declined, but stronger tremor began again last night. This afternoon from about 3.05 pm until 3.20 pm there was a period of strong seismicity, which was accompanied by acoustic signals and a minor steam and mud eruption. This generated a steam plume which might have been seen from the mainland. Because these small eruptions have become more frequent the Aviation Colour Code has been raised from Green to Yellow but the Volcanic Alert Level remains at 1.

Volcanic tremor levels have been elevated since about 24 September, but are at lower levels than those during eruptive activity during the January to April period this year.

Video compilation from the web camera on the North Rim shows activity at 3.05 pm to 3.20 pm with jets of steam and some small slugs of mud pulsing above the inner crater rim.

A video clip viewed from the North Rim of White Island can be seen at http://youtube.com/watch?v=16ryUBNl0g8. Note times in video clips are in UTC (Co-ordinated Universal Time, 13 hours behind local time).

Eruptions similar to those experienced over last 15 months are possible with no prior warning and have been occurring more often in the last week or two. The larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area to which visitors have access.

Tony Hurst
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

 

Monday, 7 October 2013, 2:00pm - White Island activity update;  Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1 and the Aviation Colour Code remains Green.

Volcanic unrest continues at White Island (Whakāri). Volcanic tremor levels have remained slightly elevated since the eruption on 20 August. A further small energetic steam venting event occurred on 4 October around 4.30 pm. This generated a steam plume above the island that was seen from the mainland. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at 1 and the Aviation Colour Code at Green.

Volcanic tremor levels have been elevated since about 24 September, but are at lower levels than those during eruptive activity during the January to April period this year.

GNS Science volcanologists visited the island on 4 October to make gas measurements, repair equipment damaged by the recent storms and record observations.

The 20 August 2013 eruption has created a new basin that is now filled with water. The lava dome area appears unchanged except for some small ponds in the area.

Recent activity has moved the focus of activity within the active crater area. The newly established lake is further to the north-east by a few tens of metres. There has also been several landslides from the Main Crater walls. The landslides are most likely related to the recent weather events.

Video compilation from the web camera on the North Rim shows activity at 03:36h 57s (UTC) pulsing above the crater rim, while the camera at Whakatane shows the general increase of emissions from around 03:35h (UTC) on 4 October. Note times in the video clips are in UTC (Co-ordinated Universal Time, 13 hours behind local time). The video clips can be seen at White Island North Rim: http://youtu.be/NGviBdjanXY and White Island Whakatane http://youtu.be/iMeMA6shgt0.

Gas flux from the volcano also remains slightly elevated and is consistent with the small scale unrest occurring on the island. Daily sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas flux for the last month has ranged from 117 to 662 tons per day. These are typical of the last 12-18 months but are higher than those measured before the unrest started in July 2012.

While the eruptive activity at White Island is currently at a low level, eruptions similar to those experienced over the last 15 months are possible with no prior warning. The larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area to which visitors have access.

Nico Fournier
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

26 August 2013, 3:00pm - White Island remains quiet;  Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1 and the Aviation Colour Code remains Yellow.

White Island remains quiet since erupting briefly on 20 August. A spike in sulphur dioxide gas emission that accompanied the eruption has passed and gas flux has returned to pre-eruption levels. Seismic activity, which dropped after the eruption, remains low. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at 1 and the Aviation Colour Code at Yellow.

Observations by GNS Science volcanologists flying over White Island on Friday last week showed that the crater that erupted on 20 August had become drowned as water had risen to reform a small lake that previously existed in the area. The area that erupted has been conspicuous for a lack of steaming since the eruption, particularly since the small lake reformed. Volcanic gas flux measurements last Friday showed that, as well as sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide were also at pre-eruption levels.

The processes that caused last week's eruption are yet not fully understood. While the eruptive activity at White Island is currently at a low level, eruptions similar to those experienced last week or smaller eruptions seen more frequently over the past year are possible with no prior warning. The larger eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area where visitors to the island may be.

GNS Science continues to closely monitor the activity at White Island and other New Zealand volcanoes through the GeoNet project. The next bulletin will be issued if there is a change in activity or there are new observations.

Background

The Volcanic Alert Level ranges from 0 to 5 and defines the current status at a volcano. Level 1 indicates signs of volcanic unrest.

Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community.

Steven Sherburn
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

21 August 2013, 1:00pm - White Island eruption information update;  Volcanic Alert Level lowered to 1 (from 2) and the Aviation Colour Code lowered to Yellow (from Orange).

Following the lower level of activity at White Island since yesterday’s eruption, GNS Science has lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to 1 and the Aviation Colour Code to Yellow.

The level of volcanic activity at White Island has decreased substantially since yesterday’s eruption. Steam and gas continue to be emitted from the active crater, in a similar fashion to that prior to the eruption. The GeoNet monitoring network continues to record seismic activity, as expected from a volcano that has been experiencing unrest for over a year.

GNS volcanologist Agnes Mazot said: “We are planning to fly around the White island and take airborne measurements of the amount of gas being emitted from the volcano. The weather is not cooperating at the moment and will are aiming at a flight possibly on Friday”.

Although the activity at White Island is currently at a low level, eruptions similar to those experienced over the past year are possible with no prior warning. These include mud geysering, more energetic eruptions similar to yesterday’s event, or ash from the active vents. Such eruptions can eject mud and rocks and may impact the crater floor area where visitors to the island may be.

There is presently no clear indication that yesterday’s eruption is leading to a large eruption, but eruptions similar to those in the last year cannot be excluded over the days or weeks to come.

The Volcanic Alert Level is now at 1 and the Aviation Colour Code at Yellow.

GNS Science continues to closely monitor the activity at White Island and other New Zealand volcanoes through the GeoNet project. The next bulletin will be issued if there is a change in activity.

Nico Fournier
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott

21 August 2013, 6:30am - Update: quiet night at White Island; Volcanic Alert remains at Level 2, Aviation Colour Code remains Orange.

Overnight, the activity at White Island remained at low level, similar to that following yesterday’s eruption.

The potential for further eruptions that might impact on visitors to the island is always present and may occur with no warning.

The Volcanic Alert Level remains at 2 and the Aviation Colour Code remains at Orange.

Background

The Volcanic Alert Level ranges from 0 to 5 and defines the current status at a volcano. Level 2 indicates minor eruptive activity.

Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community.

Nico Fournier
Duty Volcanologist

Contact: Brad Scott


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